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Mercury Hazards to Living Organisms




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ISBN 9780849392122
Published March 14, 2006 by CRC Press
336 Pages - 2 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Complex and ever changing in its forms and functions, the element mercury follows a convoluted course through the environment and up the food chain. The process is complicated further by the fact that the difference between tolerable natural background levels and harmful effects in the environment is exceptionally small and still not completely understood. Written by recognized national and international authority on chemical risk assessment, Ronald Eisler, Mercury Hazards to Living Organisms explores the biological, physical, and chemical properties of mercury and its compounds. Rich in facts and information, the book provides a fundamental look at the issues.

A synthesis of current scientific reviews, the book documents the significance of mercury concentrations in abiotic materials, plants, invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, elasmobranch, fishes, and birds, as well as humans and other mammals. The author reviews historical and current uses and sources of mercury along with its physical, chemical, biological, and biochemical properties. He summarizes mercury transport and speciation processes and analytical techniques for mercury measurement. The book includes coverage of lethality to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans; administration routes and their effects; and sublethal effects such as cancers, birth defects, and chromosomal aberrations.

Table of Contents

MERCURY SOURCES, USES, PROPERTIES, TRANSPORT, POISONING MECHANISMS, AND TREATMENT
Introduction
References

Mercury Uses and Sources
Uses
Sources
Summary
References

Properties
Physical
Chemical
Biological
Biochemical
Mercury Transport and Speciation
Mercury Measurement
Summary
References

Mercury Poisoning and Treatment
Poisoning
Mercury Treatment
Summary
References

MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FIELD COLLECTIONS OF ABIOTIC MATERIALS, PLANTS, AND ANIMALS
Mercury Concentrations in Abiotic Materials
Air
Coal
Sediments
Sewage Sludge
Snow and Ice
Soils
Water
Summary
References

Mercury Concentrations in Plants and Animals
Algae and Macrophytes
Invertebrates
Elasmobranchs and Bony Fishes
Amphibians and Reptiles
Birds
Humans
Other Mammals
Summary
References

Mercury Concentrations in Abiotic Materials and Multitaxonomic Field Collections
Asia
Brazil
Caribbean Region
Europe
India
North America
Polar Region
Summary
References

LETHAL AND SUBLETHAL EFFECTS OF MERCURY UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS
Lethal Effects of Mercury
Aquatic Organisms
Terrestrial Invertebrates
Reptiles
Birds
Mammals
Summary
References

Sublethal Effects of Mercury
Carcinogenicity, Genotoxicity, and Teratogenicity
Bacteria and Other Microorganisms
Terrestrial Plants
Terrestrial Invertebrates
Aquatic Plants
Aquatic Animals
Birds
Mammals
Summary
References

CASE HISTORIES
Case Histories: Mercury Poisoning in Japan and Other Locations
Minamata, Japan
Niigata Prefecture, Japan
Tokuyama Bay, Japan
Guizhou, China
Faroe Islands
Republic of Seychelles
New Zealand
Ontario, Canada
Summary
References

Case Histories: Mercury Hazards from Gold Mining
History
Ecotoxicological Aspects of Amalgamation
Summary
References

PROPOSED MERCURY CRITERIA, CONCLUDING REMARKS
Proposed Mercury Criteria for Protection of Natural Resources and Human Health
Agricultural Crops
Aquatic Life
Birds
Mammals
Human Health
Summary
References

Concluding Remarks
Index

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Reviews

"…This book is a must for experts in chemical risk assessment, and to my knowledge the most comprehensive reference data collection in respect to the question where how much mercury can be found, and how authorities try to evaluate these scenarios regarding ecosystem and human health."
-Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology Department, University of Bayreuth, Germany