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Isotope Effects In Chemistry and Biology




ISBN 9780824724498
Published November 1, 2005 by CRC Press
1096 Pages - 359 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

The field of isotope effects has expanded exponentially in the last decade, and researchers are finding isotopes increasingly useful in their studies. Bringing literature on the subject up to date, Isotope Effects in Chemistry and Biology covers current principles, methods, and a broad range of applications of isotope effects in the physical, biological, and environmental sciences.

The authors first explain how kinetic, equilibrium, and anharmonic isotope effects are used to measure the ratio of reaction rates, the ratio between isotopes in thermodynamic equilibrium, and the geometric changes between molecules. The volume describes basic theories, including gas phase, simple condensed phase, small molecule studies, and applications of the Bigeleisen-Mayer theory before covering how isotopes affect molecular geometries, chemical bond breaking, formation and chemical dynamics, and hydrogen transfer. It explores novel, mass-independent isotope effects and problems encountered in hydrogen transfer, tunneling, and exchange. Authors also discuss isotope effects in organic and organometallic reactions and complex enzyme reactions and a unique chapter explores water isotope effects under pressure.

Written by internationally recognized researchers from 13 countries, some chapters summarize the perspective of a well-established subject while others review recent findings and on-going research that occasionally present controversial viewpoints using clear scientific arguments and discussion presented by all relevant authors. Isotope Effects in Chemistry and Biology brings together a wide scope of different perspectives and practical developments and applications into a comprehensive reference of isotope effects that reflect the most current state of the art.

Table of Contents

Editorial
Biography
Theoretical Basis of Isotope Effects from an Autobiographical Perspective; J. Bigeleisen
Enrichment of Isotopes; T. Ishida and Y. Fujii
Comments on Selected Topics in Isotope Theoretical Chemistry; M. Wolfsberg
Condensed Matter Isotope Effects; W.A. Van Hook
Anharmonicities, Isotopes, and IR and NMR Properties of Hydrogen-Bonded Complexes; J.E. Del Bene
Isotope Effects on Hydrogen-Bond Symmetrization in Ice and Strong Acids at High Pressure; K. Aoki
Hydrogen Bond Isotope Effects Studied by NMR; H-H. Limbach, G.S. Denisov and N.S. Golubev
Isotope Effects and Symmetry of Hydrogen Bonds in Solution: Single- and Double-Well Potential; J.S. Lau and C.L. Perrin
NMR Studies of Isotope Effects of Compounds with Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds; P.E. Hansen
Vibrational Isotope Effects in Hydrogen Bonds; Z. Mielke and L. Sobczyk
Isotope Selective Infrared Spectroscopy and Intramolecular Dynamics; M. Hippler and M. Quack
Nonmass-Dependent Isotope Effects; R.E. Weston, Jr.
Isotope Effects in the Atmosphere; E. Roth, R. Létolle, C. M. Stevens, and F. Robert
Isotope Effects for Exotic Nuclei; O. Matsson
Muonium - An Ultra-Light Isotope of Hydrogen; E. Roduner
The Kinetic Isotope Effect in the Photo-Dissociation Reaction of Excited-State Acids in Aqueous Solutions; E. Pines
The Role of an Internal-Return Mechanism on Measured Isotope Effects; H.F. Koch
Vibrationally Enhanced Tunneling and Kinetic Isotope Effects in Enzymatic Reactions; S.D. Schwartz
Kinetic Isotope Effects for Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reactions; S. Hammes-Schiffer
Kinetic Isotope Effects in Multiple Proton Transfer; Z. Smedarchina, W. Siebrand, and A. Fernández-Ramos
Interpretation of Primary Kinetic Isotope Effects for Adiabatic and Nonadiabatic Proton-Transfer Reactions in a Polar Environment; P.M. Kiefer and J.T. Hynes
Variational Transition-State Theory and Multidimensional Tunneling for Simple and Complex Reactions in the Gas Phase, Solids, Liquids, and Enzymes; D.G. Truhlar
Computer Simulations of Isotope Effects in Enzyme Catalysis; A. Warshel, Mats H. M. Olsson, and J. Villà-Freixa
Chapter 24 Oxygen-18 Isotope Effects as a Probe of Enzymatic Activation of Molecular Oxygen; Justine P. Roth and Judith P. Klinman
Chapter 25 Solution and Computational Studies of Kinetic Isotope Effects in Flavoprotein and Quinoprotein Catalyzed Substrate Oxidations as Probes of Enzymic Hydrogen Tunneling and Mechanism; J. Basran, L. Masgrau, M.J. Sutcliffe, and N.S. Scrutton
Proton Transfer and Proton Conductivity in Condensed Matter Environment; A.M. Kuznetsov and J. Ulstrup
Mechanisms of CH-Bond Cleavage Catalyzed by Enzymes; W. Siebrand and Z. Smedarchina
Kinetic Isotope Effects as Probes for Hydrogen Tunneling in Enzyme Catalysis; A. Kohen
Hydrogen Bonds, Transition-State Stabilization, and Enzyme Catalysis; R.L. Schowen
Substrate and pH Dependence of Isotope Effects in Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions; W.E. Karsten and P.F. Cook
Catalysis by Alcohol Dehydrogenases; B.V. Plapp
Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Isotope Effects; D.B. Northrop
Solvent Hydrogen Isotope Effects in Catalysis by Carbonic Anhydrase: Proton Transfer through Intervening Water Molecules; D.N. Silverman and I. Elder
Isotope Effects from Partitioning of Intermediates in Enzyme-Catalyzed Hydroxylation Reactions; Paul F. Fitzpatrick
Chlorine Kinetic Isotope Effects on Biological Systems; P. Paneth
Nucleophile Isotope Effects; V.E. Anderson, A.G. Cassano, and M.E. Harris
Enzyme Mechanisms from Isotope Effects; W. W. Cleland
Catalysis and Regulation in the Soluble Methane Monooxygenase System: Applications of Isotopes and Isotope Effects; J.D. Lipscomb
Secondary Isotope Effects; A.C. Hengge
Isotope Effects in the Characterization of Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds; P.A. Frey
Theory and Practice of Solvent Isotope Effects; D.M. Quinn
Enzymatic Binding Isotope Effects and the Interaction of Glucose with Hexokinase; B.E. Lewis and V.L. Schramm
Index

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Reviews

"Kohen and Limbach have produced a massive text that broadly covers the subject of isotope effects in 42 chapters written by experts in the field. Collectively, the chapters demonstrate the very close connection between experiment and theory that is the hallmark of research on isotope effects. …All of the chapters begin with a helpful table of contents, and most have introductory sections that provide excellent background for the subsequent advanced material."
-W. Phillip Huskey, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2006

"Written by internationally recognized researchers from 13 countries, this volume (42 chapters) brings together a wide scope of different perspectives and practical developments and applications into a comprehensive reference of isotope effects that reflect the most current state-of-the-art."

– In Anticancer Research, September/ October 2007, Vol. 27, No. 5A