1st Edition

Introduction to Biomass Energy Conversions




ISBN 9781466513334
Published July 9, 2013 by CRC Press
645 Pages 191 B/W Illustrations

USD $175.00

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Book Description

The potential that biomass energy has to supplement traditional fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions has put it front and center in the plan to replace fossil-based fuels with renewable fuels. While much has been written about biomass conversions, no single textbook contains all the information needed to teach a biomass conversion course—until now. Introduction to Biomass Energy Conversions presents a comprehensive review of biomass resources available for conversion into heat, power, and biofuels.

The textbook covers biomass characterization and discusses facilities, equipment, and standards (e.g. ASTM or NREL) used for analysis. It examines the range of biomass resources available for conversion and presents traditional biomass conversion processes along with extensive biomass characterization data tables, illustrations, and graphical presentations of the various biomass energy conversion processes. The author also describes how to set up a laboratory for biomass energy conversion, and presents economics and sustainability issues. Loaded with real-world examples, the text includes numerous worked examples and problems in each chapter.

No one knows what the price of oil will be next year or in future decades. It is governed by many factors other than supply and demand (politics, wars, etc.), however, whatever the future of energy is, bio-fuels will play an important role. This technical guide prepares students for managing bio-refineries, no matter what type of bio-fuel is produced. It also provides practicing engineers with a resource for starting a small bio-fuel business.

Table of Contents

Biomass as Energy Source
Introduction
US Energy Use and Needs
Biomass Energy Usage and Overall Energy Needs in OtherCountries
Future of Agriculture
Advantages and Disadvantages in Use of Biomass as EnergySource
Sources of Biomass Available for Energy Use
Units and Conversions
Conclusion
Problems and Discussion Issues
References
Further Readings

Biomass Conversion Processes
Introduction
Overview of Biomass Conversion Processes
Chemical Conversion Processes
Biological Conversion Processes
Thermal Conversion Processes
Hybrid Conversion Processes
Applications of Biomass Conversion Products
Conclusion
Problems and Discussion Issues
References
Further Readings

Biomass Properties for Thermal Conversion
Introduction
Physical Properties of Biomass
Important Thermal Related Properties
Other Standard Methods for Biomass Analysis
Conclusion
Problems and Discussion Issues
References
Further Readings

Biomass Properties for Biological Conversion
Introduction
Properties of Biomass Important for Biological Conversion
Standard Methods for Analysis and Examples
Summary of ASTM Procedures for Compositional Analysis
Biomass Pretreatment
Conclusion
Problems and Discussion Issues
References
Further Readings

Biodiesel Production
Introduction
Available Oil Production in United States
Vegetable Oil and Animal Fat Characteristics
Fatty Acid Composition
Other Basic Oil Properties
Oil Extraction Processes
Oil Refining Processes
Transesterification
ASTM Characterization
Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions
Design of Biodiesel Plants in United States
Conclusion
Problems and Discussion Issues
References
Further Readings

Bioethanol Production
Introduction
Sugar Crops
Starchy Crops
Cellulosic Biomass
Biomass Pretreatment Processes
Household- and Village-Level Ethanol Production Systems
Pilot-Scale Ethanol Production Systems
Cellulosic Ethanol Studies
Commercial Cellulosic Ethanol Plants in United States
Conclusion
Problems and Discussion Issues
References
Further Readings

Biogas Production
Introduction
Biomass/Waste Parameters Important in Anaerobic Digestion
Acid- and Methane-Forming Microbes
Advantages and Disadvantages of Anaerobic DigestionProcesses
Biogas Conversion Process and Digester Designs
First- and Second-Generation Biogas Digesters
Design of Biogas Digester
Biogas Utilization
Conclusion
Problems and Discussion Issues
References
Further Readings

Torrefaction
Introduction
Bio-Physico-Chemical Changes in Biomass duringTorrefaction
Torrefaction Products
Physical Properties of Torrefied Biomass
Comparison between Torrefied Biomass versusPelleted Biomass
Thermal Gravimetric Analysis Studies of Biomass
Chemical Composition Changes during Torrefactionof Biomass
Advantages and Disadvantages of Torrefaction Process
Conclusion
Problems and Discussion Issues
References
Further Readings

Pyrolysis
Introduction
Various Pyrolysis Processes Based on Heating Rates
Effects of Temperature on Product Yields from Pyrolysisof Microalgae
Applications of Products from Fast Pyrolysis
Bio-Oil Characterization Processes
Bio-Oil Upgrade Processes
Studies on Pyrolysis of Various Biomass Resources
Conclusion
Problems and Discussion Issues
References
Further Readings

Gasification
Introduction
Chemistry of Biomass Gasification
Various Types of Gasifiers
Applications of Biomass Gasifiers
Gasifier TDR and Throughput
Gasification Studies at TAMU
Conclusion
Problems and Discussion Issues
References
Further Readings

Advanced Gasification
Introduction
Determining Average Particle Size of Bed Material
Minimum Fluidizing Velocity, Terminal Velocity, andPressure Drop in Fluidized Bed Reactors
Operation of 0.3048 Fluidized Bed Gasifier
Designing Dimensions of Fluidized Bed Gasifier
Designing Dimensions of Series Cyclone CharRemoval System
Direct Use of Synthesis Gas for Heat and Steam Production
Electrical Power Production from Fluidized Bed Gasification
Conclusion
Problems and Discussion Issues
References
Further Readings

Biomass Liquefaction
Introduction
Indirect Liquefaction Processes
Direct Liquefaction Processes
Other Biomass Liquefaction Processes
Advantages and Disadvantages of Biomass LiquefactionProcesses
Conclusion
Problems and Discussion Issues
References
Further Readings

Biomass Combustion
Introduction
Types of Biomass Combustion Systems
Co-Combustion of Biomass and Co-Firing with Coal
Power Generation Case Studies in United States
Slagging and Fouling Issues with Agricultural Biomass
Determining Eutectic (or Melting) Point of Biomass AshPellets
Applications of Biomass Combustion Systems
Conclusion
Problems and Discussion Issues
References
Further Readings

Biomass Sustainability Issues
Introduction
Well-to-Wheel Approach
Discussions of Software and Programs for LCA and RelatedBiomass Analysis
Biofuel Economics
Sustainability of Biofuels Production
Conclusion
Problems and Discussion Issues
References
Further Readings
Appendix A: Appropriate Units and Conversion Used
Appendix B: Glossary of Terms in Biomass Conversion Processes
Index

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Reviews

"I like the approach the authors have taken in providing an overview and then walking through each process individually. I especially like that they have spent a chapter on sustainability measurement. ... Introduction to Biomass Energy Conversions offers a complete picture of the myriad of conversion technologies that are available for Bioenergy and should serve as either a good reference for researchers or textbook for educators. The completeness of biomass conversions processes sets this text apart from others."
––Troy Runge, University of Wisconsin Madison, USA

"This is an excellent book for an introductory level course on bioenergy production. It covers conversion processes of high impact and potential and includes most recent R&D progress in the field. It will also serve as a good entry point for researchers who wish to get into bioenergy conversion field."
––Roger Ruan, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, USA

"Introduction to Biomass Energy Conversions is written for students beginning in the field. The material is well organized and easy to read. Many other books in this area are written as references, easy to find material but frustrating for a student. An instructor will appreciate the end of chapter problems that test a student’s knowledge of the material as well as the list of learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter. Students will appreciate the many worked boxed examples. The material covers systematically the current processes in biomass conversion with a discussion of advantages and disadvantages for each. The greatest strength of the book is the analyses and methods given in good detail, as well as a list of references. The chapter on sustainability is a very important addition."
––Susan Newton, John Brown University, Siloam Springs, Arkansas, USA