The field of forensic DNA analysis has grown immensely in the past two decades and genotyping of biological samples is now routinely performed in human identification (HID) laboratories. Application areas include paternity testing, forensic casework, family lineage studies, identification of human remains, and DNA databasing. Forensic DNA Analysis: Current Practices and Emerging Technologies explores the fundamental principles and the application of technologies for each aspect of forensic DNA analysis.
The book begins by discussing the value of DNA evidence and how to properly recognize, document, collect, and store it. The remaining chapters examine:
- The most widely adopted methods and the best practices for DNA isolation from forensic biological samples and human remains
- Studies carried out on the use of both messenger RNA and small (micro) RNA profiling
- Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for quantification and assessment of human DNA prior to genotyping
- Capillary electrophoresis (CE) as a tool for forensic DNA analysis
- Next-generation short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping kits for forensic applications, the biological nature of STR loci, and Y-chromosome STRs (Y-STRs)
- Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis
- Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletion polymorphisms (indels) in typing highly degraded DNA
- Deep-sequencing technologies
- The current state of integrated systems in forensic DNA analysis
The book concludes by discussing various aspects of sample-processing training and the entities that provide such training programs. This volume is an essential resource for students, researchers, teaching faculties, and other professionals interested in human identification/forensic DNA analysis.
Table of Contents
I. Sample Collection, Sample Storage, and DNA Extraction
Forensic DNA Evidence Collection at a Crime Scene: An Investigator’s Commentary; Joseph Blozis
Optimizing Storage and Handling of DNA Extracts; Steven B. Lee, Cecelia A. Crouse, and Margaret C. Kline
Extraction of DNA from Forensic Biological Samples for Genotyping; James E. Stray, Jason Y. Liu, Maxim G. Brevnov, and Jaiprakash G. Shewale
Extraction of DNA from Human Remains; James E. Stray and Jaiprakash G. Shewale
II. Sample Assessment
RNA Profiling for the Identification of the Tissue Origin of Dried Stains in Forensic Biology; Erin K. Hanson and Jack Ballantyne
Assessment of DNA Extracted from Forensic Samples Prior to Genotyping; Maura Barbisin and Jaiprakash G. Shewale
III. STRs—Proven Genotyping Markers
Principles, Practice, and Evolution of Capillary Electrophoresis as a Tool for Forensic DNA Analysis; Jaiprakash G. Shewale, Liwei Qi, and Lisa M. Calandro
Next-Generation STR Genotyping Kits for Forensic Applications; Julio J. Mulero and Lori K. Hennessy
Biology and Genetics of New Autosomal STR Loci Useful for Forensic DNA Analysis; John M. Butler and Carolyn R. Hill
Hidden Variation in Microsatellite Loci: Utility and Implications for Forensic DNA; John V. Planz and Thomas A. Hall
Additional Y-STRs in Forensics: Why, Which, and When; Kaye N. Ballantyne and Manfred Kayser
IV. Expanding the Genotyping Capabilities
Forensic Mitochondrial DNA Analysis: Current Practice and Future Potential; Mitchell Holland, Terry Melton, and Charity Holland
Applications of Autosomal SNPs and Indels in Forensic Analysis; Christopher Phillips
Deep-Sequencing Technologies and Potential Applications in Forensic DNA Testing; Roxanne R. Zascavage, Shantanu J. Shewale, and John V. Planz
Sample-to-Result STR Genotyping Systems: Potential and Status; Jenny A. Lounsbury, Joan M. Bienvenue, and James P. Landers
Training of Forensic DNA Scientists—A Commentary; Meredith A. Turnbough, Arthur J. Eisenberg, Lisa Schade, and Jaiprakash G. Shewale
Featured Author Profiles
"... an up-to-date treatise on DNA analysis methods for criminal casework. It is a collection of articles by well-established forensic DNA researchers and practitioners. The book provides a reliable resource for forensic science educators, practitioners, and other criminal justice professionals. .. This book serves as an excellent resource for practicing forensic scientists as well as aspiring forensic DNA scientists who have a molecular biology background but need to understand specifi c issues regarding evidence handling, preservation, extraction, and analysis of DNA evidence samples for criminal casework. .. a valuable addition for practicing crime laboratories and a useful teaching tool for forensic biology courses."
—S. K. Sinha, InnoGenomics Technologies, in Forensic Science Review, Vol. 26, No. 2
"New technologies will challenge the scientific community to provide reliable, reproducible, and validated forensic protocols, while legal and ethical considerations will determine the extent to which these technologies are employed. This volume provides insight into the latest advances as they evolve into 21st century DNA forensics."
—From the Foreword by Leonard Klevan, Ph.D.