1st Edition

Essential Management Skills for Pharmacy and Business Managers




ISBN 9781466582583
Published May 9, 2013 by Productivity Press
464 Pages 21 B/W Illustrations

USD $71.95

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Book Description

As a manager you will be expected to resolve a range of legal, ethical, operational, human resource, and financial issues that affect your organization. Essential Management Skills for Pharmacy and Business Managers supplies the understanding you will need to manage the day-to-day challenges in this increasingly competitive environment. Presenting a wealth of information on how to resolve common issues across all sectors of the pharmacy environment, it uses case studies to illustrate the methods required to create a patient-focused business where teamwork flourishes and continuous improvement becomes a reality.

The book describes the kinds of things that will most often go wrong in organizations of all types and sizes and provides proven methods for resolving these issues. It explains how to develop and implement an effective quality management system in the pharmacy or a retail operation that complies with external standards. Outlining an efficient performance appraisal system, it describes how to manage diversity and details time-tested problem solving, conflict management, and stress management techniques.

With coverage that includes employee management, quality management, and quality assurance, the book describes how to create a harmonious work environment that promotes effective communication between pharmacy staff, medical professionals, care givers, patients, and customers. Complete with links to further information in each chapter, it arms you with the tools to empower and motivate your employees to provide world-class patient and customer care.

Table of Contents

Managing Professionals
Scenario
Introduction
Definitions
Attributes of a Professional
Needs of a Professional
Leadership Style
Techniques for Managing Professionals
Dealing with Performance Issues
Revisiting the Scenario
References

Management Theories
Introduction
Classical Management Approach
     Scientific Management
     Administrative Management
     Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy
Behavioral Management Approach
     Hawthorne Studies
     Maslow’s Motivation Theory
     McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Management Science Theory
Organizational Environment Theory
     Open and Closed Systems Theories
     Contingency Theory
References

Managing a Pharmacy
Scenario
Introduction
Definitions
Management Styles
Types of Managers
Traditional Roles of a Manager
     Planning
     Organizing
     Directing
     Coordinating
     Controlling
     Management Skills
     Technical and Professional Skills
     Conceptual and Intellectual Skills
     Ethical Skills
     Human Resource Skills
Pharmacy Manager’s Roles
Revisiting the Scenario
References

Managing Change
Scenario
Introduction
Definitions
Triggers
History of Changes
Three Components of Change
     Component of Scope
     Component of Depth
     Component of Duration
Methods of Achieving Changes
     Structural Change
     Cost Cutting
     Process Change
     Cultural Change
Resistance to Change
     Insecurity and Fear
     Social Issues
     Economic Issues
     Stability
     Impact on Business Units of the Organization
     Inconvenience
     Unions
Overcoming Resistance to Change
Lewin’s Change Process Model
Managing Change
     Longest’s Plan
     Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan
     Pettinger’s Four-Step Plan
     Newton’s Nine-Step Plan
     Change Management Models in Health System Pharmacy Practice in the United States
     Proposed Structure for Change Management
Competencies of a Change Agent
Why Change Management Fails
Revisiting the Scenario
References

Managing Risk
Scenario
Introduction
Definitions
Type of Risks
     How Do Mistakes Happen?
Continuous Risk Management Process
     Identification of Risks
     Risk Analysis
     Planning
     Tracking
     Control
Communication
Why Do Risk Management Programs Fail?
Case Study of a Successful Risk Management Program
     Stage 1: Oversight Committee
     Stage 2: Five-Component Risk Management Program
     Stage 3: Creating a Culture of Life Safety and Management Risk
     Outcome
Revisiting the Scenario
References

Problem Solving
Scenario
Introduction
The Process
     Identification of the Problem
     Collection of Data
     Identification of the Causes of the Problem
     Selection of Causes.
     Generating Solutions
     Evaluation of the Solution for Feasibility
     Selection of the Best Options or Options
     Generation of the Action Plan
     Implementation and Monitoring
Barriers for Implementation
Systematic Problem Solving: Xerox Case Study
Revisiting the Scenario
References

Conflict Resolution
Scenario
Introduction
Definitions
What Conflict Is Not
Types of Conflict
Skills Necessary for Conflict Resolution
     Listening
     Questioning
     Nonverbal Communication
     Negotiation
Conflict Resolution Process
Strategies for Managing Conflict
     Strategies for Managing Disagreement at the Point of Conflict
     Strategies for Managing Conflict upon Escalation
Prevention of Conflict
Revisiting the Scenario
References

Managing Stress at Work
Scenario
Introduction
Definitions
Measurement of Stress Levels among Pharmacists
Impact of Stress
Response to Stress
Models of Stress
     Cognitive Appraisal Model
     Transactional Model
     Health Realization/Innate Health Model
Management of Stress
     Individual Stress Management Programs (ISMPs)
     Organizational Changes
     Prevention of Stress
Revisiting the Scenario
References

Team Building
Scenario
Introduction
Groups and Teams
Benefits of Team Approach
Types of Teams
     Teams That Recommend Things
     Teams That Make or Do Things
     Teams That Run Things
Skill Requirements
Why Teams Are Necessary
How to Build a Successful Team
Stages in Developing Teams
Enhancing Team Performance
Indications of a Winning Team
Team Building Exercises
Teams in Large Organizations and Business Units
Revisiting the Scenario
References

Effective Communication
Scenario
Introduction
Communication Needs of Health Professionals
Benefits of Effective Communication
Communication Process
Communication Components and Methods
Nonverbal Communication
Communication Skills
Managing Communication
How to Improve the Effectiveness of Communication
Improving Communication between Pharmacist and Patient
Communication Barriers
How to Overcome Communication Barriers
Revisiting the Scenario
References

Leadership
Scenario
Introduction
Leadership and Management
Visionary Leadership in Pharmacy Practice
Pharmacy Leadership in High-Performance Pharmacy Practice
Leadership Theories
Leadership Skills
Leadership Styles
Leadership Styles in the United States, United Kingdom, and Ireland
Emotional Intelligence
     Self-Awareness
     Self-Regulation
     Motivation
     Empathy
     Social Skill
Leadership Wisdom
Which Style Is Most Suitable?
Revisiting the Scenario
References

Effective Delegation
Scenario
Introduction
Definitions
Benefits of Delegation
Essential Skills for Delegation
Process of Delegation
Barriers to Delegation
Case Study of a Successful Delegation in Pharmacy Practice in the United
States
Revisiting the Scenario
References

Empowerment
Scenario
Introduction
Definitions
Benefits and Costs of Empowerment
Creating a Path to Empowerment
Effect of Control Systems on Empowerment
Dimensions of Empowerment
Steps for Developing Empowerment
Patient Empowerment
Case Study: The Role of Pharmacists in Primary Care
Barriers for Implementing Empowerment
Revisiting the Scenario
References

Motivation
Scenario
Introduction
Definitions
Motivation Model and Phases of Motivation
Motivation Theories
     Needs-Based Theories
     Extrinsic Factor Theories
     Intrinsic Factor Theories
Benefits of Motivation
Motivational Strategies
Principles of Motivation
Role of Incentives
How to Motivate Pharmacy Staff
Motivating Pharmacy Staff for Continuing Education
Why Managers Fail to Motivate Employees
Motivation of Managers
Case Studies Based on the Model of Nohria et al. (2008)
Revisiting the Scenario

References

Managing Cultural Diversity at Work
Scenario
Introduction
Definitions
     Diversity
     Multiculturalism
     Culture
     Values
     Norms
Key Cultural Indicators
Challenges of Diversity
Benefits of Diversity
Healthcare Needs of Minority Groups in the United States
     Creation of a Diverse Healthcare Workforce
Necessary Skills for Managing Diversity
Managing Diversity
Guidelines for Multicultural Collaboration
Case Study from New Zealand
Revisiting the Scenario
References

Performance Review
Scenario
Introduction
Purpose
Objectives
Benefits of Performance Review
Performance Appraisal of Pharmacy Staff
Appraisal Methods
Nontraditional Appraisal Methods
     Atlassian’s Experiment
     Work Performance and Review (WP&R) Method
     Positive Program for Performance Appraisal
Case Studies of Successful Performance Appraisal Systems
Development of a Performance Evaluation System for Pharmacy Staff
Proposed Method for Evaluating Pharmacists
      Part 1: Monitoring Work Performance
     Part 2: Biannual Review—Evaluation of Managerial and Leadership Skills
     Part 3: Action Plan
     Part 4: Agreement
Revisiting the Scenario
References

Quality Management Systems
Introduction
Definitions
General Pharmaceutical Council (GPhC) Standards
Quality Assurance Programs on Pharmacy Practice
     NHS Quality, Innovation, Productivity, and Prevention Programme (QIPP)
     Australian Quality Care Pharmacy Programme (QCPP)
     Professional Practice Standards (PPS) and the Standards for the Provision of Pharmacy Medicines and Pharmacist-Only Medicines in Community Pharmacy
Quality Management Principles
References

Quality Management System for Pharmacy Practice
Introduction
Small Business Standard (SBS)
The Key Elements of the SBS
     Management Responsibility
     Business Reviews
     Customer Care
     Staff
     Working Environment and Processes
     Suppliers
     Documentation
      Preventing and Correcting Product or Service Problems
     Records
Process for Designing a QMS
     Prerequisites
     Identifying Core and Support Processes
     Assurance Processes
Process Approach
The Structure of the QMS
Operations Manuals
     Policy Manual
     Procedures Manual
     Work Instructions
Completing the Manuals
References

Audits and Reviews
Scenario
Introduction
Definitions
Management Review
Auditing Styles
     Inspectorial Style
     "Show and Tell" Style
     Collaborative Style
Types of Audit
     Product Audit
     Process Audit
     System Audit
Classification Based on Who Carries Out the Audit
     First-Party Audits
     Second-Party Audits
     Third-Party Audits
Specific Purpose Audits
Audit Skills
     Behavioral Skills
     Technical Skills
     Management Skills
Audit Process
     Planning
     Conducting the Audit (Figure 19.1)
Audit Report
Revisiting the Scenario
References

Dispensing Errors and Near Misses
Scenario
Introduction
Incidence of Dispensing Errors and Near Misses
     Dispensing Errors in the United Kingdom
     Dispensing Errors in the United States
Causes of Dispensing Errors
Use of Bar Code Technology and Automatic Dispensing
Application of Crew Resource Management
Management of Errors
Preventive Measures
     Prescribing Errors
     Dispensing Process
     Administration Errors
Management Responsibility
Revisiting the Scenario
References

Patient Complaints
Scenario
Introduction
Significance of Patient Complaints
Benefits of an Effective Complaints Management System
Why Do Patients Complain?
How to Handle Complaints
Management of Complaints
Revisiting the Scenario
References

Appendices

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Author(s)

Biography

Titus De Silva, PhD gained his pharmacy degree (with honors) from the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. He has worked in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Japan, and Kuwait in all sectors of pharmacy practice (hospital, community, academia, research, and industry) and also in the beverage industry. For over 30 years, he held senior management positions in New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and Sri Lanka. Before immigrating to New Zealand, he was the head of the National Drugs Quality Control Laboratory in Sri Lanka. During his time in Sri Lanka, he was a visiting lecturer and examiner at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Colombo School of Pharmacy. While in Kuwait, he served as a specialist in drug analysis and quality control under its Ministry of Health. In Japan, he was attached to the National Institute of Hygienic Science in Tokyo, where he worked with experts in pharmaceutical science. Organizations he worked for include Southland Hospital Board (New Zealand), Hoechst Pharmaceuticals (New Zealand), Pernod-Ricard (New Zealand), Eli Lilly Research (UK), Ballinger’s Pharmacy  (New Zealand), Boots Chemists (UK), and Lloyds Pharmacy (UK).

In addition to his pharmacy qualifications, he has a BSc degree in chemistry, postgraduate diploma in computer science, and MBA and PhD in management science. He is a chartered chemist (CChem), a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (FRSC), a member of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (MRPharmS), and a member of the Pharmaceutical Society of New Zealand (MPS).

Pernod-Ricard (previously Montana Wines Limited) owned the largest multiple winery in New Zealand, with wineries in four regions. In his role as their corporate quality assurance manager, he was responsible for developing and implementing quality, food safety and occupational safety, and hygiene management systems to comply with international standards. His efforts were rewarded when Montana Wines Limited became the first winery in Australasia to have its quality management system certified to the ISO 9000 standard. In his role, he coached and trained staff for management positions.

Dr. De Silva’s expertise has been sought after by professional organizations. He has presented numerous papers at international seminars and published a number of papers and articles on quality management, food safety, pharmacy practice, and topics of general interest in management journals and magazines. He was the co-author of the chapter “Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point” in the book Handbook of Food Preservation, published by Marcel Dekker, New York (1st edition) (1999). In the second edition of Handbook of Food Preservation, he was the author of the revised “Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)” chapter and the “Good Manufacturing Practices” chapter (published by CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, in July 2007). His book Handbook of Good Pharmacy Practice was published in 2011in Sri Lanka.

He has gained competency as a lead auditor and was a registered auditor in quality management and occupational safety and hygiene. Dr. De Silva was a member of the review board of the Joint Accreditation System of Australia and New Zealand (JAS-ANZ) and a member of its technical advisory council. JAS-ANZ is the sole body responsible for accrediting certifying bodies in Australia and New Zealand. He has also been enlisted as a consultant to United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). In 2004, the New Zealand government awarded him the Queen’s Service Medal for services to the New Zealand community.

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Reviews

A very comprehensive book that, if thoroughly read, understood, and implemented, will lead to best practice for this industry sector. ... I recommend this book as compulsory reading at least for all pharmacy and business management, professional or otherwise, but more particularly as a compressive training manual for all staff in a group environment.
—Bruce Craig Munro (CNZM), BSC, BCA, ACA, Former CEO, Penfolds Wines Limited, New Zealand and Chairman of the New Zealand Wool Board

One clear conclusion is that the vast literature on business management can give a range of answers on important issues ... . This book puts these generic issues into the specific context of the community pharmacy and gives sound and valuable advice on how to successfully manage this type of business.
—Dr. David Taylor, BSc Pharmacy (Hons)., PhD, Former Director of Product Development, Analytical Development, and Project Management, AstraZeneca, UK