1st Edition

Chemical Reaction Engineering
Beyond the Fundamentals




ISBN 9781439831229
Published July 15, 2013 by CRC Press
578 Pages 182 B/W Illustrations

USD $165.00

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Book Description

Filling a longstanding gap for graduate courses in the field, Chemical Reaction Engineering: Beyond the Fundamentals covers basic concepts as well as complexities of chemical reaction engineering, including novel techniques for process intensification. The book is divided into three parts: Fundamentals Revisited, Building on Fundamentals, and Beyond the Fundamentals. Part I: Fundamentals Revisited reviews the salient features of an undergraduate course, introducing concepts essential to reactor design, such as mixing, unsteady-state operations, multiple steady states, and complex reactions.

Part II: Building on Fundamentals is devoted to "skill building," particularly in the area of catalysis and catalytic reactions. It covers chemical thermodynamics, emphasizing the thermodynamics of adsorption and complex reactions; the fundamentals of chemical kinetics, with special emphasis on microkinetic analysis; and heat and mass transfer effects in catalysis, including transport between phases, transfer across interfaces, and effects of external heat and mass transfer. It also contains a chapter that provides readers with tools for making accurate kinetic measurements and analyzing the data obtained.

Part III: Beyond the Fundamentals presents material not commonly covered in textbooks, addressing aspects of reactors involving more than one phase. It discusses solid catalyzed fluid-phase reactions in fixed-bed and fluidized-bed reactors, gas–solid noncatalytic reactions, reactions involving at least one liquid phase (gas–liquid and liquid–liquid), and multiphase reactions. This section also describes membrane-assisted reactor engineering, combo reactors, homogeneous catalysis, and phase-transfer catalysis. The final chapter provides a perspective on future trends in reaction engineering.

Table of Contents

Part I Fundamentals Revisited

Reactions and reactors: Basic concepts
Chapter objectives
Introduction
Reaction rates
Stoichiometry of the rate equation
Multiple steady states
References
Bibliography
Explore Yourself

Complex reactions and reactors
Chapter objectives
Introduction
Reduction of complex reactions
Rate equations
Selectivity and yield
Yield versus number of steps
Reactor design for complex reactions
Reactor choice for maximizing yields/selectivities
Plug-flow reactor with recycle
Semibatch reactors
Optimum temperatures/temperature profiles for maximizing yields/selectivities
References
Bibliography
Explore Yourself

Interlude I
Reactive distillation
Membrane reactors
Phase transfer catalysis
References

Nonideal reactor analysis
Chapter objectives
Introduction
Two limits of the ideal reactor
Nonidealities defined with respect to the ideal reactors
Residence time distribution
Concept of mixing
Turbulent mixing models
Practical implications of mixing in chemical Synthesis
References
Bibliography
Explore Yourself

Interlude II
Limits of mean field theory
The predator–prey problem or surface mixing
Mixing problem addressed
References

Part II Building on Fundamentals

Introduction
The different tools of the trade

Rates and equilibria: The thermodynamic and extrathermodynamic approaches
Chapter objectives
Introduction
Basic thermodynamic relationships and properties
Thermodynamics of reactions in solution
Extrathermodynamic approach
Extrathermodynamic relationships between rate and equilibrium parameters
Thermodynamics of adsorption
Appendix
References
Bibliography
Explore Yourself

Interlude III
Reactor design for thermodynamically limited reactions
References

Theory of chemical kinetics in the bulk and on the surface
Chapter objectives
Chemical kinetics
Collision theory
Transition state theory
Proposing a kinetic model
Brief excursion for the classification of surface reaction mechanisms
Microkinetic analysis
References
Bibliography
Explore Yourself

Reactions with an interface: Mass and heat transfer effects
Chapter objectives
Introduction
Transport between phases
Mass transfer across interfaces: Fundamentals
Solid catalyzed fluid reactions
Noncatalytic gas–solid reactions
Gas–liquid reactions in a slab
Effect of external mass and heat transfer
Regimes of control
References
Explore Yourself

Laboratory reactors: Collection and analysis of the data
Chapter objectives
Chemical reaction tests in a laboratory
A perspective on statistical experimental design
Batch laboratory reactors
Rate parameters from batch reactor data
Flow reactors for testing gas–solid catalytic reactions
The transport disguises in perspective
Analyzing the data
References
Explore Yourself

Part III Beyond the Fundamentals

Objectives
Introduction
The different tools of the trade
Process intensification
References

Fixed-bed reactor design for solid catalyzed fluid-phase reactions
Chapter objectives
Introduction
Nonisothermal, nonadiabatic, and adiabatic reactors
Adiabatic reactor
Choice between NINA-PBR and A-PBR
Alternative fixed-bed designs
References
Bibliography
Explore Yourself

Fluidized-bed reactor design for solid catalyzed fluid-phase reactions
Chapter objectives
General comments
Fluidization: Some basics
Two-phase theory of fluidization
Geldart’s classification
Bubbling bed model of fluidized-bed reactors
Solids distribution
Calculation of conversion
Strategies to improve fluid-bed reactor performance
Extension to other regimes of fluidization types of reactors
Deactivation control
Some practical considerations
Fluidized-bed versus fixed-bed reactors
References
Explore Yourself

Gas–solid noncatalytic reactions and reactors
Chapter objectives
Introduction
Modeling of gas–solid reactions
Extensions to the basic models
Models that account for structural variations
A general model that can be reduced to specific ones
Gas–solid noncatalytic reactors
References

Gas–liquid and liquid–liquid reactions and reactors
Chapter objectives
Introduction
Diffusion accompanied by an irreversible reaction of general order
Measurement of mass transfer coefficients
Reactor design
A generalized form of equation for all regimes
Classification of gas–liquid contactors
Reactor design for gas–liquid reactions
Reactor choice
Liquid–liquid contactors
Stirred tank reactor: Some practical considerations
References

Multiphase reactions and reactors
Chapter objectives
Introduction
Design of three-phase catalytic reactors
Types of three-phase reactors
Loop slurry reactors
Collection and interpretation of laboratory data for three-phase catalytic reactions
Three-phase noncatalytic reactions
References
Bibliography

Membrane-assisted reactor engineering
Introduction
General considerations
Modeling of membrane reactors
Operational features
Comparison of reactors
Examples of the use of membrane reactors in organic technology/synthesis
References

Combo reactors: Distillation column Reactors
Distillation column reactor
Enhancing role of distillation: Basic principle
Overall effectiveness factor in a packed DCR
Distillation–reaction
References

Homogeneous catalysis
Introduction
Formalisms in transition metal catalysis
Operational scheme of homogeneous catalysis
Basic reactions of homogeneous catalysis
Main features of transition metal catalysis in organic synthesis: A summary
A typical class of industrial reactions: Hydrogenation
General kinetic analysis
References

Phase-transfer catalysis
Introduction
Fundamentals of PTC
Mechanism of PTC
Modeling of PTC reactions
"Cascade engineered" PTC process
References

Forefront of the chemical reaction engineering field
Objective
Introduction
Resource economy
Energy economy
Chemical reaction engineer in the twenty-first century
In Closing

Index

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Author(s)

Biography

L. K. Doraiswamy was the Anson Marston Distinguished Professor in Engineering in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at Iowa State University. He published a 950-page treatise on the application of chemical reaction engineering principles to organic synthesis, introducing the new field of organic synthesis engineering. He was the recipient of over 30 international honors and awards in recognition of his contributions to chemical engineering including the Padma Bhushan of the Government of India and election to the U.S. National Academy of Engineering.

Deniz Uner is the chair of the Department of Chemical Engineering of the Middle East Technical University, in Ankara, Turkey, and the founding president of the Catalysis Society of Turkey. Her active research area is at the intersection of catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, and thermodynamics. Her present research is focused on energy-efficient chemical conversions, and storage of solar and thermal energy in chemical bonds. She teaches graduate- and undergraduate-level courses in Chemical Reaction Engineering and Thermodynamics.

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Author - Deniz  Uner
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Deniz Uner

Professor and Chair Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University
Ankara, Ankara, Turkey

Learn more about Deniz Uner »